Understanding the Fabula and Syuzhet in Stories

The FabulaTHE fabula and syuzhet are two of the most basic and important narrative concepts writers have at their disposal, yet few know exactly what they mean.

The syuzhet is the story that unfolds on the page or screen. It contains all the gaps, obfuscations, and convolutions that render the hero’s experiences interesting to the reader and audience.

The fabula, by contrast, is the sequence of events readers and audiences piece together in their minds while the story unfolds in order to make sense of it.

The fabula as the global perspective of the story

Think of the fabula as the all-revealing, areal perspective of a story. It affords full discloser, offers no surprises and grants no unsolved puzzles. It is, what I call, ontologically replete.

The syuzhet, on the other hand, represents the subjective, ground-level discombobulation of the fabula, intended to generate the kaleidoscope of emotions that keep us engrossed. Arguably, the syuzhet contains the artistic fingerprints of its creators. It is the level where most of the art and craft happens.

Memento, for example, has an extremely convoluted syuzhet. The hero, who suffers from short term memory loss, has to constantly try to understand events that make no sense to him, since he has forgotten the intentions and motives that have preceded them. The creators of the film offer a story that unfolds from present to past in order to capture the disorientating subjective experience of the hero.

Most films, even conventional ones, routinely hide information from us in order to build suspense or interest, until the appropriate point of release. In Manchester by the Sea the reason the protagonist is unable to form relationships and seems content to remain in an abusive, low-paying job is explained through a series of flashbacks later in the film.

Other more ontologically complex films reveal information at a more formal level. The result is the existential surprises of the sort we see in films such as Donnie Darko, Vanilla Sky, Jacob’s ladder, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, and many others. Such puzzle films present the audience with two or more levels of existential reality, making it harder to construct a sensible fabula from a stubbornly uncommunicative syuzhet.

In my own novel, The Level, the syuzhet withholds crucial ontological information from the readers, challenging them to build a coherent fabula before they can understand the meaning of the story.

The benefit of fabula construction lies at the initial stage of story-creation. In planning a complex tale it is best to build a comprehensible fabula before attempting to shift, hide, and surprise through an artful syuzhet. Failure to do so will leave writers as confused as the readers and audiences they are attempting to woo.


Construct a cogent and replete fabula before attempting to write a convoluted and artful syuzhet.

4 thoughts on “Understanding the Fabula and Syuzhet in Stories

  1. Gerhard Pistorius

    Interesting post. If I understand it correctly , the syuzhet and the fabula are based on cause and effect. If one looks at Quentin Tarantino’s Kill Bill films the syuzhet is the story of a Assassin who takes revenge on those who wronged her. It’s a non liner structure that unfolds on the screen.

    The fabula is the manner in witch her motives for revenge are revealed. It’s almost a subliminal way in which the viewer is able piece together the story.
    In short : the Syuzhet and the fabula need a good editor to come through on screen.

    1. Stavros Halvatzis Post author

      Yes, kind of, Gerhard. The fabula is the aerial, no-holds barred, replete story. The syuzhet is the convoluted edited story meant to engage the reader and audience in a game of hide-and-seek.

  2. Stephen Marcus Finn

    Very interesting and helpful, Stavros – thank you. I’m looking forward to writing a convoluted syuzhet within the year, although any ideas for it haven’t even reached any sort of germination yet.


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