WITH the erosion of morality as an absolute set of values centred around faith in a deity, there has arisen an ethical relativism which has contributed to a crop of protagonists who are best described as anti-heroes. But just what is an anti-hero?
In a chapter titled, CREATING AN ANTI-HERO, taken from the Reader’s Digest book, Creating Characters, The Complete Guide to Populating Your Fiction, Jessica Page Morrell defines this character type as someone with specific reasons that explain his behaviour.
Hence, anti-heroes are not simply rebels or ‘bad asses’ for the heck of it. Their actions and beliefs spring from a personal, clearly reticulated philosophy.
“Anti-heroes are protagonists whose values do not align with traditional morality but rather spring from their own individual philosophy.”
Morrell offers the following role-defining characteristics of anti-heroes:
- Anti-heroes are not role models, although we secretly would like to kick ass like they do.
- They can be selfish and essentially bad people who occasionally are good.
- They are sometimes unglamorous and unattractive in character as well as in appearance.
- They can be motivated by self-interest and self-preservation, but there is usually a line anti-heroes won’t cross, which sets them apart from villains.
- They often have motives that are complicated and range from revenge to honor.
- If they are forced to choose between right and wrong, will sometimes choose wrong because it’s easier.
- They can play both sides with good guys and bad guys, profiting from both.
- They can sometimes be coerced to help underdogs, children, or weaker characters, and they sometimes do so voluntarily.
- They can embody unattractive traits and behaviors, such as sexist and racist attitudes, and violent reactions when wronged.
- They can show little or no remorse for bad behaviors.
- They are a mess of contradictions.
These characteristics, then, distinguish anti-heroes from classical heroes since the latter tend to act out of a sense of honour, nobility, altruism, or a belief in God.
What is lost by having characters act outside conventional morality is the behavioural clarity based on centuries of human development within the context of a religious and cultural vision.
What is gained is a more original, if ambivalent, nexus of character action that perhaps more vividly represents modern society, for good or ill.
Anti-heroes are not necessarily evil. They are characters who act according to a philosophy that is often at odds with received morality.