Monthly Archives: February 2012

How to Manage Image Systems in Your Story

An image system is a collection of images, which repeats throughout your story or script. Each new image acts as an echo of a previous instance, reinforcing the main concerns and themes of your story. These images chiefly function in two ways—they are part of the actual “physical” world of your story, but they are also reflections, or symbols of your story’s interior concerns—the inner landscape.

The Power of Imagery

The Power of Imagery

Shutter Island

The film, Shutter Island, drives the story forward by utilising images of water, the sea, and wind, whipped up into a hurricane, which is closing in on the island housing a mental hospital. The hurricane is an important plot element that adds to the tension and ups the ante as U.S. Marshal Teddy Daniels (Leonardo DiCaprio) races to conclude his investigation of the disappearance of a mental patient, who he suspects is hiding on the island, before the storm hits.

Aggravating the frenetic search for the patient is Daniels’s own deteriorating mental condition, as images of his past life as a soldier, then as a husband and father, flash before him, adding to his overall instability and confusion. The image of the hurricane, therefore, is more than a major plot element. It is also a symbol of the inner landscape, a warning of the potentially tempestuous and uncontrollable behaviour that smoulders inside all of us.

The Piano

In the film, The Piano, images of water, the sea, and mud are deeply embedded into every aspect of the story—they are a part of the setting, which sets the tone and mood of the tale. But these images, drawing on basic psychological analysis, also connote the sexual and emotional tension of the characters, becoming stronger each time we encounter them in the film. The piano itself perfectly captures the two-fold function of imagery. The instrument is as much a vehicle for the plot, as it is a substitute for Ada McGrath’s (Holly Hunter) lost voice and suppressed passion.


For an in-depth analysis of the image systems in Chinatown, follow this link to an earlier post.

In Summary

Managing images systems in your stories relies on two major factors: selecting images that pertain to your story world, while simultaneously evoking and supporting the themes and concerns that your story sets out to explore. Elemental images such as earth, fire, water, and air, have a long association with certain themes and subject matter in film and literature. Others, are looser and more mailable. Choosing the right class of imagery will not only help you plot your story effectively, but will enrich and deepen its thematic and connotative layers too.

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How to Establish Character Identification

In a well-crafted film or novel, we often identify with the characters in the story. At the very least, we need to identify with the protagonist – if we are to be drawn into the tale at all. By identification, I mean the tendency to experience a character’s achievements, failures, foibles, likes and dislikes as if they were our own. Identification is not the same as liking the character, although, in the traditional story, it is one of the most important elements. Because identification helps to draw us into the story more effectively than is otherwise possible, it is one of the most important story-telling skills to master.

A child kissing its reflection in the mirror

Character Identification

In his book, Writing Screenplays That Sell, Michael Hague lays out several ways to achieve this. Here’s six of the most important:

1. Create sympathy for your characters. This is one of the most effective ways to achieve identification with a fictional character. A character that has been made the victim of some undeserved misfortune is a someone we can root for — Ghandi, Joan of Arc, Rob Roy are all people that did not deserve the punishment meted out to them.

2. Place your character in peril. Worrying about a character’s well-being draws us closer to him. In The Matrix we worry that Neo’s conflict with agent Smith will result in his death. This forces us identify with his predicament even more.

3. Make your character likable. If we like someone we are more likely to root for her. A character that is funny (Inspector Clouseau), good (William Wallace), or merely skilled at what he does (Dirty Harry), posses traits that make him likable.

4. Make your character powerful. Readers and audiences are fascinated with powerful figures. Superman’s arch enemy, Lex Luthor, holds our interest precisely because his is a powerful enemy.

5. Introduce your protagonist as soon as possible. The reader is waiting for someone worthy to root for. The sooner you bring her into the fray, the sooner the process of identifying with her can begin.

6. Give your character familiar flaws and foibles. In comedy, especially, we often identify with a character who is awkward or clumsy precisely because we recognise some of these characteristics as our own. Woody Allen’s characters are an effective illustration of this technique.

In Summary

Creating a strong sense of Identification with your protagonist and her plight is essential. Use one or more of the six tehquniques mentioned above to achieve a stronger and more engaging storyline.

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