Tag Archives: Lagos Egri

How to Interrogate Your Story

20 Questions

20 Questions:

To ensure that your story is on track, complete the first draft of your novel or screenplay, then answer the following questions (drawn from Lagos Egri’s superlative work on dramatic writing).

1. What is your story’s premise? For example: “Unswerving integrity delivers from disgrace.” That defines the moral premise/theme of your story.
2. What is your protagonist’s goal? What does your protagonist want, more than anything?
3. What is your protagonist’s compulsive, 100% trait?
4. What is your character insecure about? All characters want self-preservation and security.
5. Why is the character insecure about this condition? How did he or she develop that insecurity about the condition?
6. How did the character develop the condition about which he is insecure? What is this injury for which the character has a compulsive drive to escape? Backstory here. Provide a specific event or series of events that explain how he developed the condition. Those events caused a chain of reaction/action/reaction. Tell the tale.
7. What is the crisis that upsets the status quo? How does it affect the protagonist?
Why is the protagonist dissatisfied?
8. What is the dire necessity that spurs the protagonist to action and keeps him relentless to reach his goal? This is something that threatens his special insecurity.
9. How does hesitation to take action threaten to worsen the protagonist’s situation?
10. What decision will he make or action will he take to change things? This is his point of attack, the decision or action that starts the conflict.
11. Is the protagonist fighting for or against the status quo? Does he want to keep things the way they are, or change them because they’ve become intolerable?
12. Who is your antagonist? He must be diametrically and militantly opposed to the protagonist.
13. Why does the antagonist oppose the protagonist and his goal? What is the antagonist’s motivation?
14. What is the point of 1) contradiction and 2) conflict between them?
15. What is the unbreakable bond between the protagonist and antagonist? What is so much at stake that they can’t leave each other? Multiple reasons are good.
16. What is the wrong step the protagonist makes that starts the crisis?
17. How does this decision create another problem?
18. What does the protagonist do to rectify this new problem?
19. How does this response create another, worse, problem?
20. How does the final crisis, conflict, and resolution prove your premise?


Satisfactorily answering the set of twenty questions listed above will help to keep your characters and story on track.

How to Determine the Theme of your Story

Just about everyone knows that every story contains a theme. Dictionary.com defines theme as a subject of discourse, discussion, meditation, or composition. Also, a unifying or dominant idea, motif, etc., as in a work of art. Ask most people what exactly it is that they mean by “theme”, however, and the answers vary in inflection and precision from “mood” to “controlling idea”. It seems that theme means different things to different people. At the very least, its use, in the colloquial sense, is imprecise.

Yet, a deep understanding of theme is essential in crafting a story that stays on track. The definition I find most useful in my own writing stems from a combination of two strands of thought drawn from the work of Lagos Egri and Stanley D. Williams: that a theme is only clinched the end of the story, and that it implies a moral premise.

Why should the theme be clinched only at the end of the story? Because that’s when the final outcome of the conflict between the protagonist and antagonist is determined.

Why should that involve a moral sense, or judgment? Because the antagonist represents the negative force, or, the existence of evil in the tale, while the protagonist represents the positive force, or, the presence of good. In simple terms, if the antagonist wins, we have a down ending — evil triumphs. If the protagonist wins, we may have an up ending — good carries the day.

30 Days of Night

In the film 30 Days of Night, the isolated northern Alaskan town of Barrow is beset by a band of vampires intent on using the 30 days of darkness to gorge on the unsuspecting and helpless community. The sheriff, Eben Oleson (Josh Hartnett), the story’s protagonist, pits himself against Marlow (Danny Huston), the leader of the vampires, in order to help save the town, but clearly lacks the strength to defeat him. All seems lost, until Eben hatches a plan to bolster his own strength by infecting himself with tainted blood, turning himself into a vampire. Eben defeats Marlow only to expose himself purposely to sunlight and perish, ensuring that he never becomes a threat to humans.

The theme of the story is that death, through self-sacrifice, may lead to a greater, more transcendent victory by granting life to others — something that only emerges at the end of the film.

What is useful about isolating the theme in this way is that it grants one the ability to hold the essence of the story in the palm of one’s hand for scrutiny. This is crucial in keeping things on track, and for trouble-shooting potential problems.

In Summary

It is helpful to think of the theme as embodying a moral premise, which is clinched only at the end of the tale. Identifying your theme at the planing stage affords you the opportunity to see the essence of your story at glance and helps you to keep things on track.

If you’ve enjoyed this post, or have a suggestion for a future one, kindly leave a comment and let’s get chatting.

How to Write Great Characters

Great characters are an indispensable part of any successful story. Certain genres, such as Action Adventure, or even Science Fiction, tend towards a plot-driven approach; others such as Romance, or Literary Fiction, are more character-driven. All stories, however, require convincing and believable characters to complement an effective plot. Much has been written on the subject over the centuries and it is not my intension to rehash this here. Certainly, observation, honesty, intelligence, maturity and empathy, are all attributes that aid the writer in this task. These attributes can’t always be taught in class; they accumulate over a lifetime. There are some core techniques, however, that can be taught and do provide the scaffolding for building successful characters by utilising a set of well-chosen traits.

What are Character Traits?

As the famous writing teacher Lagos Egri reminds us, traits are values or character components that define a personality in broad strokes – honesty, bravery, miserliness, nobility, steadfastness, cowardliness, and so on. Most traits have a moral or ethical component. To act nobly, for example, is to act ethically, whilst cowardliness is inconsistent with righteous behavior.

The Character Developmental Arc

We’ve often heard that successful characters change and grow. They learn from events around them. What does this mean in practical terms? In its simplest sense, change in a character means the gaining of prominence of certain traits at the expense of others. Typically, a character is defined by four or five traits. A traditional Protagonist tends to have three or four positive traits and one negative one. This juxtaposition is essential in creating dynamic characters who experience internal conflict. A conflicted character is inherently more interesting than a static and stable one. Character change, on these terms, involves managing the emphasis of these traits. In an “up ending” the Protagonist de-emphasizes his negative trait and accentuates his positive ones. In a “down ending”, the opposite happens. These changes typically happen at the structural turning points, particularly the mid-point. These are the moments where important events impact the character and cause him or her to respond. This allows the writer to craft character growth in a localized and manageable way.


In Knowing, John Koestler (Nicholas Cage), an atheistic astrophysicist who believes in random chance rather than Devine determinism, has to come to terms with the idea that the future is indeed predetermined, when he discovers numerical data held in a time capsule buried fifty years previously, which accurately predicts global accidents and disasters, and ultimately the end of the world. This eventually causes John to entrust his son Caleb’s (Chandler Canterbury) future to a group of alien observers who offer to take Caleb and his young friend Abby (Lara Robinson) to another planet to ensure mankind’s survival. As a marker of his transformation, John reconciles with his father, a priest, after many years of alienation. His trait of skepticism has been replaced by the dormant trait of faith (at least, in the ability of the aliens to secure his son’s future).

In Summary

Traits contain an ethical or moral aspect, and lie at the core of character formation. Having one trait in opposition to others creates the potential for interesting conflict within the character. Traits, in relation to the structural turning points of the story, afford the writer a way of managing a character’s transformational arc, essential for crafting successful stories.