Monthly Archives: November 2016

How Settings Support Plot in Stories

SettingsONE of the many ways to strengthen the dramatic impact of your stories is to place your characters in settings that variously generate harmony or tension among your characters.

In The Novelist’s Guide, Margret Geraghty points out that in Wuthering Heights, the somber, brooding Yorkshire moors form the perfect setting for the fiery love affair between Cathy and the wild and dangerous Heathcliff. In many ways, the moors are as powerful a player in the story as any of the characters.

In the film Witness John Book is a city detective recovering from a gunshot wound he received while attempting to shield Rachel, an Amish mother, and her son who has witnessed a homicide. In one incident the entire Amish neighborhood of the rural Pennsylvanian town, where most of the film plays out, takes part in the building of a barn – the men doing the building, the women supporting the men by making the food.

In understanding that this religious, rural community is an indispensable part of Rachel’s life, John correctly concludes that he and Rachel can never share a life – she is embedded in religious and rural values, he isn’t. Even when he sees her, naked to the waist washing dishes, desiring her, he is able to resist the temptation to be her lover. He knows he does not belong.

In my novel, The Land Below, the setting of a sealed underground goldmine is in counterpoint to the protagonist’s desire to seek a better life on the surface. The plot to escape emerges inevitably from his dark, claustrophobic existence.

When choosing settings for your stories, then, place your characters in spaces that feed the plot and generate drama.

Summary

Place your story in settings that help to create conflict among your characters – settings that support some characters while opposing others.

How to Contrast Scenes in Scripts and Novels

ScriptsHow many scenes are necessary in writing good scripts? In Making a Good Script Great, Linda Seger notes that this number varies. Some have less than seventy five scenes, some more than a hundred.

In novels this number varies even more, with some of the greatest stories ever written running into many hundreds of scenes.

Contrasting Scenes in Scripts and Novels

Some scenes are extremely short. Those include establishing scenes such as a street exterior or the inside of a vehicle. These are meant to place the viewer or reader in a specific time and place. Others, engaged with plot and character development occur over several pages.

Film scripts that comprise of only a handful of scenes underutilise the potential of the film medium and are more suited to being rendered as a stage play. On the other hand, a ninety minute film that runs into hundreds of short scenes will feel frenetic, hurried, underdeveloped.

The secret to a well-paced story is to balance scenes through contrast. As a general rule dark scenes should be balanced by lighter ones, somber scenes with ones that are more joyful, and slower scenes with faster paced ones.

In Fatal Attraction, for example, Alex and Dan are languidly lying in bed together. Cut to the next scene which catapults us into lively dancing inside a loud jazz club. This prevents the sense of sameness that leads to boredom.

Contrast can also be created through intercutting. In Schindler’s List a wedding scene in the concentration camp is intercut with Schindler kissing a girl in a club, which, in turn, is intercut with the commandant beating Hellen.

In my own novella, The Nostalgia of Time Travel, scenes that enact the slow pace of a man in physical and moral stasis are contrasted with the immense force of a category five cyclone that threatens to destroy the protagonist’s world.

Summary

Contrasting the number and texture of scenes creates rhythm and movement. Failing to do so creates a flat line that leads to stasis and boredom.

Donald Trump Tweets his Own Script

Donald Trump Wins ElectionSo, Donald Trump is the President Elect of the United States.

People across the world have watched the unfolding drama during past twenty months, some with increasing fascination and enthusiasm, others with varying degrees of scorn, fear, and trepidation.

This week, I thought that I’d take a break from writing about screenplays and novels to give you my brief take on this seismic election.

Donald Trump – the Teflon Don

To many, Donald Trump personifies some of the best and worst traits of America. Tough, resilient, inventive, brash, rude, and politically incorrect he has battered through a seemingly impervious wall of opposition to grab the Presidency and co-opt conservatives to his personal brand of Republicanism.

Love him or hate him, Trump has gone against the political, financial and media establishment, earned the ire of powerful elements in his own party, and won. No political outsider, with the exception of Eisenhower, has managed to do that before. It is a jaw-dropping achievement against overwhelming odds.

Few, outside his circle of supporters, saw it coming. Pollsters and pundits didn’t. Mainstream media didn’t. Neither did Democrats.

But Trump did. He correctly gaged the mood of the majority of working class Americans and proposed an agenda they could vote for.

Of course, it didn’t help that he was up against a widely disliked and distrusted political opponent in Hillary Clinton who used an insecure personal server to mix confidential government and personal business, then destroyed thirty-three thousand emails that were under Congressional subpoena to hide her tracks and repeatedly lied about it.

It didn’t help that ObamaCare has gone up by double digits in many states, with crippling deductibles.

It didn’t help that businesses are being drowned under an avalanche of suffocating regulations.

It didn’t help that surveys show that over 70% of voters are angry with the government and feel it is heading in the wrong direction.

It certainly didn’t help that NAFTA has cost American workers seventy thousand factory closures since Bill Clinton signed it.

And then, of course, there is illegal immigration. And rampant crime in cities such as Chicago. And homeland terrorism. And WikiLeaks. And Brexit as an indicator of an emerging global backlash against aloof political elites.

In retrospect, should anyone have been quite so surprised at the result?

Potent Language in Stories

Potent and moodySOME of the most potent writing advice comes from Strunk and White’s brief but perennially precious book, Elements of Style. In the chapter, Principles of Composition, we learn to ‘prefer the specific to the general, the definite to the vague, the concrete to the abstract.’

Writers who seize and hold the reader’s attention by being definite, specific, and concrete number amongst the greatest – Homer, Dante, Shakespeare. Their writing is potent, in part, because their words render up pictures.

Here is an extract from The Zoo from a short story by Jean Stanford, a lesser known but nonetheless accomplished writer:

Potent Language

‘Daisy and I in time found asylum in a small menagerie down by the railroad tracks. It belonged to a gentle alcoholic ne’er-do-well, who did nothing all day long but drink bathtub gin in Rickey’s and play solitaire and smile to himself and talk to his animals. He had a little stunted red vixen and a deodorized skunk, a parrot from Tahiti that spoke Parisian French, a woebegone coyote, and two capuchin monkeys, so serious and humanized, so small and sad and sweet, and so religious-looking with their tonsured heads that it was impossible not to think of their gibberish was really an ordered language with a grammar that someday some philologist would understand.’

This is a powerful evocation of an environment, a personality, indeed, a world, and all done through the telling use of concrete and specific language. This language is not only useful in evoking an appropriate atmosphere in short stories and novels. It is also important when used adroitly in the ‘action block’ of screenplays, where brief, specific, and concrete language adds to the precise direction needed by actors, set designers, and set dressers to render scenes effectively.

Summary

Use specific, definite, and concrete language to write scenes that create mood and render up potent pictures in the minds of your readers.